109 votos

¿Bash tiene un gancho que se ejecuta antes de ejecutar un comando?

En bash, ¿puedo hacer para que una función se ejecuta antes de la ejecución de un comando?

Hay $PROMPT_COMMAND, la cual es ejecutada antes de mostrar un mensaje, es decir, justo después de la ejecución de un comando.

Bash $PROMPT_COMMAND es análogo a zsh s precmd función; así que lo que estoy buscando es un golpe equivalente a zsh s preexec.

Ejemplos de aplicaciones: conjunto de su terminal de título a la orden ejecutada; agregar automáticamente time antes de cada comando.

91voto

Gilles Puntos 37591

No de forma nativa, pero puede ser hackeado utilizando la DEBUG de la trampa. Este código establece preexec y precmd funciones similares a las de zsh. La línea de comandos se pasa como un argumento único a preexec.

Esta es una versión simplificada del código para configurar un precmd función que se ejecuta antes de la ejecución de cada comando.

preexec () { :; }
preexec_invoke_exec () {
    [ -n "$COMP_LINE" ] && return  # do nothing if completing
    [ "$BASH_COMMAND" = "$PROMPT_COMMAND" ] && return # don't cause a preexec for $PROMPT_COMMAND
    local this_command=`HISTTIMEFORMAT= history 1 | sed -e "s/^[ ]*[0-9]*[ ]*//"`;
    preexec "$this_command"
}
trap 'preexec_invoke_exec' DEBUG

Este truco es debido a Glifo Lefkowitz; gracias a bcat para localizar al autor original.

Edit. Una versión actualizada del Glifo del hack se puede encontrar aquí: https://github.com/rcaloras/bash-preexec

19voto

cYrus Puntos 10811

Usted puede utilizar el trap comando (de help trap ):

If a SIGNAL_SPEC is DEBUG, ARG is executed before every simple command.

Por ejemplo, para cambiar dinámicamente el título terminal se puede utilizar:

trap 'echo -e "\e]0;$BASH_COMMAND\007"' DEBUG

De esta fuente.

5voto

RCCola Puntos 101

Recientemente he tenido que solucionar este problema exacto para un proyecto paralelo de mina. Hice una solución bastante robusta y resistente que emula la funcionalidad preexec y precmd de zsh para bash.

https://github.com/rcaloras/Bash-preexec

Fue originalmente basada en solución de glifo Lefkowitz, pero he mejorado en él y lo trajo hasta la fecha. Encantados de ayudar o agregar una característica si es necesario.

3voto

Escribí un método para registrar comandos/builtins 'bash' todos en un archivo de texto o un servidor de 'syslog' sin usar un parche o una herramienta ejecutable especial.

Es muy fácil de implementar, ya que es un simple shellscript que deba ser llamado una vez a la inicialización de 'bash'.

Vea el método aquí.

3voto

Gracias por las sugerencias! Terminé usando esto:

#created by francois scheurer

#sourced by '~/.bashrc', which is the last runned startup script for bash invocation
#for login interactive, login non-interactive and non-login interactive shells.
#note that a user can easily avoid calling this file by using options like '--norc';
#he also can unset or overwrite variables like 'PROMPT_COMMAND'.
#therefore it is useful for audit but not for security.

#prompt & color
#http://www.pixelbeat.org/docs/terminal_colours/#256
#http://www.frexx.de/xterm-256-notes/
_backnone="\e[00m"
_backblack="\e[40m"
_backblue="\e[44m"
_frontred_b="\e[01;31m"
_frontgreen_b="\e[01;32m"
_frontgrey_b="\e[01;37m"
_frontgrey="\e[00;37m"
_frontblue_b="\e[01;34m"
PS1="\[${_backblue}${_frontgreen_b}\]\u@\h:\[${_backblack}${_frontblue_b}\]\w\\$\[${_backnone}${_frontgreen_b}\] "

#'history' options
declare -rx HISTFILE="$HOME/.bash_history"
chattr +a "$HISTFILE" # set append-only
declare -rx HISTSIZE=500000 #nbr of cmds in memory
declare -rx HISTFILESIZE=500000 #nbr of cmds on file
declare -rx HISTCONTROL="" #does not ignore spaces or duplicates
declare -rx HISTIGNORE="" #does not ignore patterns
declare -rx HISTCMD #history line number
history -r #to reload history from file if a prior HISTSIZE has truncated it
if groups | grep -q root; then declare -x TMOUT=3600; fi #timeout for root's sessions

#enable forward search (ctrl-s)
#http://ruslanspivak.com/2010/11/25/bash-history-incremental-search-forward/
stty -ixon

#history substitution ask for a confirmation
shopt -s histverify

#add timestamps in history - obsoleted with logger/syslog
#http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2008/08/15-examples-to-master-linux-command-line-history/#more-130
#declare -rx HISTTIMEFORMAT='%F %T '

#bash audit & traceabilty
#
#
declare -rx AUDIT_LOGINUSER="$(who -mu | awk '{print $1}')"
declare -rx AUDIT_LOGINPID="$(who -mu | awk '{print $6}')"
declare -rx AUDIT_USER="$USER" #defined by pam during su/sudo
declare -rx AUDIT_PID="$$"
declare -rx AUDIT_TTY="$(who -mu | awk '{print $2}')"
declare -rx AUDIT_SSH="$([ -n "$SSH_CONNECTION" ] && echo "$SSH_CONNECTION" | awk '{print $1":"$2"->"$3":"$4}')"
declare -rx AUDIT_STR="[audit $AUDIT_LOGINUSER/$AUDIT_LOGINPID as $AUDIT_USER/$AUDIT_PID on $AUDIT_TTY/$AUDIT_SSH]"
declare -rx AUDIT_SYSLOG="1" #to use a local syslogd
#
#PROMPT_COMMAND solution is working but the syslog message are sent *after* the command execution, 
#this causes 'su' or 'sudo' commands to appear only after logouts, and 'cd' commands to display wrong working directory
#http://jablonskis.org/2011/howto-log-bash-history-to-syslog/
#declare -rx PROMPT_COMMAND='history -a >(tee -a ~/.bash_history | logger -p user.info -t "$AUDIT_STR $PWD")' #avoid subshells here or duplicate execution will occurs!
#
#another solution is to use 'trap' DEBUG, which is executed *before* the command.
#http://superuser.com/questions/175799/does-bash-have-a-hook-that-is-run-before-executing-a-command
#http://www.davidpashley.com/articles/xterm-titles-with-bash.html
#set -o functrace; trap 'echo -ne "===$BASH_COMMAND===${_backvoid}${_frontgrey}\n"' DEBUG
set +o functrace #disable trap DEBUG inherited in functions, command substitutions or subshells, normally the default setting already
#enable extended pattern matching operators
shopt -s extglob
#function audit_DEBUG() {
#  echo -ne "${_backnone}${_frontgrey}"
#  (history -a >(logger -p user.info -t "$AUDIT_STR $PWD" < <(tee -a ~/.bash_history))) && sync && history -c && history -r
#  #http://stackoverflow.com/questions/103944/real-time-history-export-amongst-bash-terminal-windows
#  #'history -c && history -r' force a refresh of the history because 'history -a' was called within a subshell and therefore
#  #the new history commands that are appent to file will keep their "new" status outside of the subshell, causing their logging
#  #to re-occur on every function call...
#  #note that without the subshell, piped bash commands would hang... (it seems that the trap + process substitution interfer with stdin redirection)
#  #and with the subshell
#}
##enable trap DEBUG inherited for all subsequent functions; required to audit commands beginning with the char '(' for a subshell
#set -o functrace #=> problem: completion in commands avoid logging them
function audit_DEBUG() {
    #simplier and quicker version! avoid 'sync' and 'history -r' that are time consuming!
    if [ "$BASH_COMMAND" != "$PROMPT_COMMAND" ] #avoid logging unexecuted commands after Ctrl-C or Empty+Enter
    then
        echo -ne "${_backnone}${_frontgrey}"
        local AUDIT_CMD="$(history 1)" #current history command
        #remove in last history cmd its line number (if any) and send to syslog
        if [ -n "$AUDIT_SYSLOG" ]
        then
            if ! logger -p user.info -t "$AUDIT_STR $PWD" "${AUDIT_CMD##*( )?(+([0-9])[^0-9])*( )}"
            then
                echo error "$AUDIT_STR $PWD" "${AUDIT_CMD##*( )?(+([0-9])[^0-9])*( )}"
            fi
        else
            echo $( date +%F_%H:%M:%S ) "$AUDIT_STR $PWD" "${AUDIT_CMD##*( )?(+([0-9])[^0-9])*( )}" >>/var/log/userlog.info
        fi
    fi
    #echo "===cmd:$BASH_COMMAND/subshell:$BASH_SUBSHELL/fc:$(fc -l -1)/history:$(history 1)/histline:${AUDIT_CMD%%+([^ 0-9])*}===" #for debugging
}
function audit_EXIT() {
    local AUDIT_STATUS="$?"
    if [ -n "$AUDIT_SYSLOG" ]
    then
        logger -p user.info -t "$AUDIT_STR" "#=== bash session ended. ==="
    else
        echo $( date +%F_%H:%M:%S ) "$AUDIT_STR" "#=== bash session ended. ===" >>/var/log/userlog.info
    fi
    exit "$AUDIT_STATUS"
}
#make audit trap functions readonly; disable trap DEBUG inherited (normally the default setting already)
declare -fr +t audit_DEBUG
declare -fr +t audit_EXIT
if [ -n "$AUDIT_SYSLOG" ]
then
    logger -p user.info -t "$AUDIT_STR" "#=== New bash session started. ===" #audit the session openning
else
    echo $( date +%F_%H:%M:%S ) "$AUDIT_STR" "#=== New bash session started. ===" >>/var/log/userlog.info
fi
#when a bash command is executed it launches first the audit_DEBUG(),
#then the trap DEBUG is disabled to avoid a useless rerun of audit_DEBUG() during the execution of pipes-commands;
#at the end, when the prompt is displayed, re-enable the trap DEBUG
declare -rx PROMPT_COMMAND="trap 'audit_DEBUG; trap DEBUG' DEBUG"
declare -rx BASH_COMMAND #current command executed by user or a trap
declare -rx SHELLOPT #shell options, like functrace  
trap audit_EXIT EXIT #audit the session closing

¡ Disfrute!

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